## AP Physics

AP Physics B is a national algebra/trigonometry based course in physics. The syllabus for this course is equivalent to introductory physics courses for university students. The emphasis is on understanding the concepts and skills using laboratory investigation and formulae to solve problems. Laboratory work is an integral part of this course. In this course students will investigate kinematics, Newton’s laws, torque, rotational motion and angular momentum, gravitation, circular motion, work, energy, power, linear momentum, mechanical waves and sound, and electric circuits. This course is designed for college bound students interested in pursuing a science related field. Dual credit may be available. Students will be qualified to sit for the AP Physics 1 examination.

**Credits:** 1.0 (0.5 per semester)

**Estimated Completion Time:** 2 semester2/18-36 weeks

DC Dual Credit Available

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### Missouri Learning Standards

**Unit 1 – Sound and Waves**

- 9-12.SPS.PS2.A.21 Apply Hooke’s Law and Newton’s Second Law to rotation
- 9-12.PS4.A.1 Use mathematical representations to support a claim regarding relationships among the frequency, wavelength, and speed of waves traveling in various media. [Clarification Statement: Examples of data could include electromagnetic radiation traveling in a vacuum and glass, sound waves traveling through air and water, and seismic waves traveling through the Earth.]
- 9-12.SPS.PS4.A.4 Apply equations of velocity, frequency, wavelength, amplitude, intensity, and power and interference to various wave types.
- 9-12.PS4.A.2 Evaluate the claims, evidence, and reasoning behind the idea that electromagnetic radiation can be described either by a wave model or a particle model, and that for some situations one model is more useful than the other. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on how the experimental evidence supports the claim and how a theory is generally modified in light of new evidence. Examples of a phenomenon could include resonance, interference, diffraction, and photoelectric effect.]
- 9-12.SPS.PS4.A.4 Explain the formation, characteristics, and behavior of various wave types
- 9-12.PS4.B.1 Communicate technical information about how electromagnetic radiation interacts with matter. [Clarification Statement: Examples could include solar cells capturing light and converting it to electricity; medical imaging; and communications technology.]
- 9-12.PS4.B.2 Evaluate the validity and reliability of claims in published materials of the effects that different frequencies of electromagnetic radiation have when absorbed by matter. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the idea that photons associated with different frequencies of light have different energies, and the damage to living tissue from electromagnetic radiation depends on the energy of the radiation. Examples of published materials could include trade books, magazines, web resources, videos, and other passages that may reflect bias.]
- 9-12.SPS.PS4.A.5 The student is able to predict which properties determine the motion of a simple harmonic oscillator and what the dependence of the motion is on those properties
- 9-12.SPS.PS4.A.6 The student is able to design a plan and collect data in order to ascertain the characteristics of the motion of a system undergoing oscillatory motion caused by a restoring force.
- 9-12.SPS.PS4.A.7 The student can analyze data to identify qualitative or quantitative relationships between given values and variables (i.e., force, displacement, acceleration, velocity, period of motion, frequency, spring constant, string length, mass) associated with objects in oscillatory motion to use that data to determine the value of an unknown
- 9-12.SPS.PS4.A.8 The student is able to construct a qualitative and/or a quantitative explanation of oscillatory behavior given evidence of a restoring force.
- 9-12.SPS.PS4.A.9 The student is able to use a visual representation to explain how waves of slightly different frequency give rise to the phenomenon of beats.

**Unit 2 – Speed Limit**

- 9-12.PS2.A.2 Use mathematical representations to support and verify the concepts that the total momentum of a system of objects is conserved when there is no net force on the system. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the quantitative conservation of momentum in interactions and the qualitative meaning of this principle.]
- 9-12.PS2.A.3 Apply scientific principles of motion and momentum to design, evaluate, and refine a device that minimizes the force on a macroscopic object during a collision. [Clarification Statement: Examples of evaluation and refinement could include determining the success of the device at protecting an object from damage and modifying the design to improve it. Examples of a device could include a football helmet or a parachute.]
- 9-12.SPS.PS2.A.17 Apply the principles of conservation of energy and conservation of momentum.
- 9-12.SPS.PS2.A.4 Define and apply definitions of displacement, average velocity, instantaneous velocity, and average acceleration.
- 9-12.SPS.PS2.A.5 Analyze motion graphs qualitatively and quantitatively.
- 9-12.SPS.PS2.A.7 Apply the concepts of vectors to solve problems involving relative velocity.
- 9-12.SPS.PS2.A.8 Demonstrate proficiency in solving problems that involve objects in motion with constant acceleration by analyzing the resultant force(s) in horizontal surfaces, inclined planes, and pulley systems (Atwood’s Machines)
- 9-12.SPS.PS2.A.9 Distinguish between mass and weight, calculate weight using the acceleration due to gravity, and apply weight to static and kinetic friction.9-12.SPS.PS2.A.10 State and apply Newton’s Laws of motion.
- 9-12.SPS.PS2.A.16 Derive work and change in momentum from graphical representations.
- 9-12.SPS.PS2.A.19 Solve problems associated with various characteristics of uniform circular motion including banking angles, conical pendulums, and vertical circles.
- 9-12.ETS1.A.1 Analyze a major global challenge to specify qualitative and quantitative criteria and constraints for solutions that account for societal needs and wants.
- 9-12.ETS1.B.1 Evaluate a solution to a complex real-world problem based on prioritized criteria and trade-offs that account for a range of constraints, including cost, safety, reliability, and aesthetics as well as possible social, cultural, and environmental impacts.
- 9-12.ETS1.B.2 Use a computer simulation to model the impact of proposed solutions to a complex real-world problem with numerous criteria and constraints on interactions within and between systems relevant to the problem.
- 9-12.SPS.SI.1 Formulate a testable question and explanation.
- 9-12.SPS.SI.2 Select appropriate investigative methods in order to obtain evidence relevant to the explanation.
- 9-12.SPS.SI.3 Gather evidence from qualitative and quantitative observations.
- 9-12.SPS.SI.4 Evaluate explanations (laws/principles, theories/models) in light of evidence (data) and scientific principles (understandings).
- 9-12.SPS.SI.5 Communicate results and justify explanations.

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